Nutritious cell centers and microscopic foams as elementary forms of living beings


  • Mauricio de Carvalho Ramos Universidade de São Paulo



protoplasm, morphology, nucleoplasmatic form, Goodsir, Bütschli


In this paper I will compare two conceptions of basic elements or units of living organisms from the second half of the nineteenth century: Goodsir’s cellular centers and Bütschli’s protoplam. The comparison will be made from the proposition of a nucleoplasmic form, and the referred conceptions are historical expressions of this general form. The nutrition center is a form that combines the functions of nutrition, germination and reproduction, responsible for the production of tissues (textures), organs, tumors and the whole organism from the fertilized egg. Microscopic foams produce organic differentiation through dynamic stabilization of the surface tension between the alveoli. I will conclude critically by discussing the relationship of these two expressions in terms of their continuity or exhaustion as scientific achievements of the biology of the period cited.

Author Biography

Mauricio de Carvalho Ramos, Universidade de São Paulo

Departamento de Filosofia


Bütschli, J. A. O. (1894). Investigations on microscopic foams and on protoplasm. London: Adam and Charles Black.

Goodsir, J., Goodsir, H. D. S (1845). Anatomical and pathological observations. Edinburgh: Myles Macphail.

Ramos, M. de C. (2012). O conceito de mônada orgânica. Methateoria, 3(1): 1853-2322.

Ramos, M. de C. (2013). Morfologia genética em Scheliden e Grant: a célula vegetal e o animal elementar. Revista de Filosofia Aurora, 36(25): 217-237. doi:

Ramos, M. de C. (2015). Organic monadology in Maupertuis. Advances in Historical Studies (4): 17-28. doi: 10.4236/ahs.2015.41003

Ramos, M. de C. (2016). A plasmogenia e a síntese conceitual e artificial do protoplasma. São Paulo: LiberArs.




How to Cite

Ramos, M. de C. (2019). Nutritious cell centers and microscopic foams as elementary forms of living beings. Revista De Humanidades De Valparaíso, (14), 171–185.

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